The Week in Blogging: Week 8 saw both a musical example and an analysis of that smokiest of styles, the ars subtilior; Mark scratched the surface of the Trecento with a Landini clip; and I engaged in a self-indulgently free-form mediation on periodization and the Renaissance. We ended the week by taking stock of just how far we’ve come with the Challenge (and just how far we still have to go!).
The Week in Reading:
CHAPTER 10 – “A Pleasant Place”: Music of the Trecento
- Vulgar Eloquence, Madrigal Culture, and A New Discant Style (351-359): In the 14th century, Italian composers engaged most heavily in the madrigale form, which consists of a few tercets (terzetti) capped off by a ritornello, or “send off.” The characteristic texture for this form consists of 2-part discant with cadences through occursus, or unison (a la French music a couple centuries earlier). Madrigals were set to vernacular poetry. Major source: the Squarcialupi Codex.
- The “Wild Bird” Songs (359): A lively madrigal tradition that featured rustic texts and technically challenging parts made to imitate the flight and songs of birds. Watch out Olivier Messiaen!
- Ballata Culture (364): Besides motets and madrigals, the Italians were big fans of the ballata genre, a popular dance form. Boccaccio even included one in the Decameron.
- Landini (366): As Mark’s introductory post mentioned, Francesco Landini (1325-97) was well-respected blind organist whose music comes down to us is relatively large quantities. Because of this serendipitous twist of history, Landini has become the primary composer of the Trecento in music historiography. Among other things, he is remembered for his “Landini cadence,” which approaches the tonic through a 7-6 falling leading tone. Some of his music was adapted for keyboard instruments in the Faenza Codex.
- Late Century Fusion (374): One hugely significant element of the Trecento was its element of internationalization and fusion. There are madrigals that satirize French style, hint at motet then pull back before the Italian identity becomes too obscured , play with French techniques (putting the talea in the cantus instead of the traditional tenor, for instance), etc. All of this points to a healthy musical cross-fertilization going on at this time that would ultimately lead to a greater internationalization of musical style.
- An Important Side Issue: Periodization (380-385): Taruskin’s mini-essay on the concept of periodization, a recent obsession on the blog, is well worth the time.
This doesn’t take us right up to page 400, but we switch gears here to English music and the beginnings of Ch.11 might be better served in next week’s summary. On the menu this week: English music (and it’s nothing like their food, thank goodness!).